By George Tegos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Drug resistance is expanding between numerous human pathogenic microorganisms akin to Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumaniii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. (currently dubbed the 'ESKAPE' pathogens), and has emerged as some of the most very important medical demanding situations of this century. elevated basic information and worry of those pathogens ability there's a transforming into call for for study to take on the specter of multidrug resistance. Documenting the most recent learn within the box, this booklet discusses present and promising actions to find new antimicrobials in 5 key parts: molecular genetics and platforms microbiology; artificial, computational chemistry and chemoinformatics; excessive Throughput Screening (HTS); non-vertebrate version hosts; and lightweight- and nano-based applied sciences.
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Extra info for Antimicrobial drug discovery : emerging strategies
2009) New concepts and new weapons in implant infections. International Journal of Artificial Organs 32, 533–536. Ataide, S. and Ibba, M. (2006) Small molecules: big players in the evolution of protein synthesis. ACS Chemical Biology 1, 285–297. , Kumar, A. M. (2010) Antibiotic heterogeneity: from concept to practice. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1213, 81–91. Baldry, S. (2010) Attack of the clones. Nature Reviews Microbiology 8, 390. I. and Lewis, K. (2006) Conjugating berberine to a multidrug efflux pump inhibitor creates an effective antimicrobial.
Microbial pathogens are thus extremely dangerous for these patients. Bacterial sepsis has already become one of the main causes of death in the elderly. The extensive use of antibiotics has selected antibiotic-resistant 26 strains, some of them resistant to more than one antibiotic. Resistant bacteria were originally detected in hospitals; however, their occurrence is now more widely distributed. The large amounts of antibiotics used in human therapy, as well as those used for farm animals and even for fish in aquaculture, have resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs (Nikaido, 2009).
3. Whereas FDA drug applications peaked at 131 in 1996, the number dropped steadily to 78 by 2002 (Warner, 2003). Launches of new drugs have dropped from an average of 44 per year during 1995–2000 to 33 during 2001– 2006, and to 27 in 2007 (Malik, 2008). 4. The number of drugs classified by the FDA as new chemical entities (NCEs) developed by the top 20 pharmaceutical organizations continued to drop over the 15-year period between 1987 and 2002 (Handen, 2002). The number launched in 2003 was 30, the lowest in over 20 years (Class, 2004).