By Robert Liddiard
Замки одинадцатого и двенадцатого веков остаются одними из самых видимых символов англо-нормандского мира. Данный сборник впервые объединяет некоторые из наиболее значимых статей в исследованиях замков, при участии специалистов в области истории, археологии и исторических сооружений. Замки остаются спорной темой для научных дебатов, и здесь равный вес придается основополагающим статьям, которые определили изучение предмета, одновременно подчеркивая новые подходы к крепостям англо-нормандской аристократии. Исследования в данной книге следуют в диапазоне от обсуждений жилой и военной роли замка в архитектурной символике до королевского отношения к фортификации баронов. В результате исследование, которое предлагает углубленный анализ строительства замков в одиннадцатом и двенадцатом веках, также затрагивает место англо-нормандских замков в их более широком социальном, архитектурно-политическом контексте.
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Samuel Pepys, in England, made several references to 'ague'. ' (Pepys, 1985). One might conjecture that His Lordship was subject to attacks of vivax malaria. Closer to the present military doctors, such as Sir John Pringle, were well aware of malaria, called variously remitting or intermittent fever, and, in the eighteenth century subscribed to the prevailing notion about its origin. Thus Pringle (1775, p. 173) writes: Mosquitos and Malaria 25 This species of fever was mentioned in the general account of the diseases most incident in the Netherlands, and also in the account of those which occurred during the last two campaigns; but the full description was reserved for this place.
As the new schizont matures it produces a new mass of merozoites each of which can set up a new cycle of erythrocytic schizogony. The release of parasites, and of metabolized red cell proteins, causes a clinical response characterized by chills, sweats and fever in the patient. The cyclical development of the parasite cause the typical waxing and waning of the fever of a malarial infection. T H E SEXUAL STAGE Not all parasitized red cells lead to the schizont development. Some follow an alternative path and produce cells filled with dense material and many nuclei which are the sexual stages of the parasite, the so-called micro and macrogametocytes.
Thus Ross estimated that millions died of malaria in India, it did not matter much over how long a period. One may safely guess that many millions died annually in the nineteenth century. There is no one who can contradict the estimate because it was hard to get reliable figures. Even the assumption that malaria was correctly diagnosed as a cause of death may be open to some doubt since deaths from kala azar in India may often have been ascribed to malaria where there had been no microscopical diagnosis; nevertheless there is little doubt that malaria, presumably mostly vivax malaria, was widespread in India, since in 1896 Ross noted 'parasites in 69 out of 112 cases' (Ross, 1910 b, p.