Anglo American and the Rise of Modern South Africa by Duncan Innes

By Duncan Innes

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3 in the Statistical annex). Most of these countries have established the PPP unit in the Ministry of Finance or in a subordinate unit of this ministry. 4. 3 in the Statistical annex). Four countries (Chile, Denmark, Hungary and Japan) have PPP units only in line ministries and one country (Greece) has a PPP unit in another body. The CBA is more frequently required to approve PPP projects than traditional infrastructure projects (TIP). While 42% of OECD countries require that CBA approve all PPP projects, this is the case for only 18% of TIP projects.

The Commission analyses if the draft budget is in line with the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and the recommendations from the European Semester. In case of serious non-compliance with the SGP, the Commission can require a revised draft budgetary plan. Otherwise it may address an opinion to the Member States concerned which would also be discussed by the Eurogroup leading to increasing peer pressure. The recommendations from the European Semester (which the country have received in May/June) and the Commission’s opinion on the draft budget (which the Commission may adopt by 30 November) will guide the national parliamentary debate in the second half of the year (the “national semester”).

Regulation (EU) No 1175/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 November 2011 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 1466/97 on the strengthening of the surveillance of budgetary positions and the surveillance and coordination of economic policies 3. Regulation (EU) No …/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council on common provisions for monitoring and assessing draft budgetary plans and ensuring the correction of excessive deficit of the Member States in the euro area, ref. 1-3) The Central Budget Authority (CBA) is the hub of the central government budget process.

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